based on notes kept by Marjorie Moody,
with additional comments by Brian Carroll
The 54 numbered species on this list come from
records of verified
Note: all measurements of spiders are for body only, without legs.
M Y G A L O M O R P H A E
[ ]* These are folding door trap-door spiders.
Members of the genus
[ ]* Small (8-18mm) sheet-web weaving tarantulas.
Members of the genus
[ ]* Various species of these ‘typical tarantulas’
have been taken in
[ ]* ‘Funnel-web tarantulas’; the upper fourth
of the burrow is lined with
[ ]* Two ‘Trap-door spiders,’ Bothriocyrtum
californicum (O.P. Cambridge) and Hebestatis theventi (Simon)
have been found in Tulare Co., building tubular burrows in clay soils.
Insides are lined with silk and the opening closed with a snug
fitting cork-type lid. Males wander
during the winter.
A R A N E O M O R P H A E
[ ]* The local Kukulcania
sp. is commonly found with its lacy funnel-web
[ ]* The tiny (under 3mm) ‘Base-board Spider’
navus (Lucas) is common throughout Tulare Co. Under stones or in
cracks of bark, constructing a very slight web nest, they are light colored
and run very fast when disturbed, making them difficult to get a good look
[ ] 1. Uloborus diversus (Marx) although drab in color, is an easy spider to identify in the field, hanging upside down in a delicately-lacy, nearly-horizontal web; its long front legs decorated with tufts of ‘hair’ at the joints. Uloborids are unique among our spider fauna for having no poison glands at all.
[ ] 2. Dictyna reticulata (Gertsch &
Ivie) is a small spider that builds an
[ ] * Various Amaurobiids, such as Amaurobius
tulare (Leech) are found
[ ] * Various Scytodes spp. are found Tulare
Co. These ‘Spitting Spiders’
[ ] * Various Dysderids are found Tulare Co.,
under stones and in leaf
[ ] 3. Holocnemus
pluchei (Scopoli), is the common, large ‘Daddy-long legs’ or ‘Cellar
Spiders’ that housewives curse for their ubiquitous webs.
[ ] 4. Psilochorus sp., also long-legged,
but much smaller spiders than the
THERIDIIDAE F24 (comb-footed spiders)
[ ] 5. Latrodectus
hesperus (Chamberlain & Ivie), California's version of
[ ] 6. Steatoda
grossa (C.L. Koch). Lighter colored, than the Black Widow, often
with a purplish tint - and with yellowish dots against dark
[ ] 7. Theridion
sp. Over two dozen species in this genus live in
[ ] * Almost certainly our fauna includes various other small ‘Comb-footed Spiders’ or ‘Cob-web weavers’, such as Achaearanea sp., and Tidarren sp.
[ ] * Species such as Eperigone eschatologica (Crosby), Erigone autumnalis (Emerton) and Grammonota gentilis (Banks) are found Tulare Co., most easily identified by their webs, which have platforms, or domes (where they hang upside down), within a large, seemingly irregular scaffolding, constructed in bushes, trees, or tall grasses.
[ ] 8. Microlinyphia sp.
ARANEIDAE F27 (‘orb-web weavers’ or ‘garden spiders’)
[ ] 9. Argiope
aurantia (Lucas), large (14-28mm females, 5-8mm males)
[ ] * Cyclosa sp.
This spider uses egg sacs, debris and silk to build a
[ ] 10. Gea heptagon (Hentz), small (4.5-5.8mm females, 2.4-4.3mm males) orb-weaver found in grasses or ground-cover. When disturbed, this spider quickly drops from her web.
[ ] 11. Larinia directa (Hentz), (4.8-11.7mm
females, 2.9-3.3mm males),
[ ] 12. Metepeira crassipes (Chamberlin
& Ivie)(tentative identification),
[ ] 13. Neoscona oaxacensis (Keyserling),large,8.5-19.7mm females, 4.5-15.0mm males, mature in late summer and fall.
laboriosa (Hentz). Many authors consider the
AGELENIDAE F28 (Funnel-web spiders)
[ ] 15. Hololena
frianta (Chamberlin & Ivie) Very common in dense
[ ] 16. Hololena sp. (not frianta)
LYCOSIDAE F33 (Wolf Spiders)
All of the wolf spiders superficially resemble
the Agelenids, but do not
[ ] 17. Arctosa sp. (probably A. littoralis
Hentz, the only Arctosa reported
[ ] 18. Pardosa californica (Keyserling), Usually seen near water, adults in the spring and fall. Males are usually very dark. (4.5-8.0mm females, 4.5-6.0mm males).
[ ] 19. Pardosa ramulosa (McCook) (tentative
[ ] 20. Pardosa tuoba (Chamberlin)(tentative
identification), a ramulosa
[ ] 21. Pardosa sternalis (Thorell)(tentative
[ ] 22. Schizocosa
mccooki (Montgomery), large (9.6-22.7mm females,
[ ] 23. Trocosa gosiuta (Chamberlin) (10-13mm females, 7.4-9.4mm males; adults found in summer)
OXIOPIDAE F34 (Lynx spiders)
[ ] 24. Oxyopes
salticus (Hentz) the ‘Silver Lynx’, mature in spring and
[ ] 25. Oxyopes
scalaris (Hentz) the ‘Brown Lynx’, slightly bigger than
[ ] * Peucetia sp. the ‘Green Lynx’. Larger
than Oxyopes (11.8-21.6mm
All of the Gnaphosids are nocturnal hunters, not likely to be seen by daytime visitors unless rock or rotting wood are turned over. Dark colors.
[ ] 26. Herpyllus propinquuns (Keyserling),
mature year round. (7.2-9.6mm females, 5.4-6.6mm males.
[ ] 27. Micaria sp. (probably utahna Gertsch, common throughout California) 2.9-3.8mm females, 2.5-3.4mm males. Found March through early September.
[ ] * Scotophaeus blackwalli (Thorell),
dark with a distinctive silver or
[ ] 28. Sergiolus sp.
[ ] 29. Zelotes griswoldi (Platnick &
Shadab) Seen mostly in Spring.
CLUBIONIDAE F37 (Sac Spiders)
Similar in structure to Gnaphosids, Clubionids
are more likely to be
[ ] 30. Castianeira thalia (Reiskind) 5.7-9.0mm females, 5.3-5.7mm males.
[ ] 31. Castianeira sp.
[ ] 32. Chiracanthium inclusum (Hentz) tan-colored spider, sometimes tending toward yellow or green or with darker abdomen, depending on what it feeds upon. Often found exploring vegetation or in a silk sac curled in a leaf. 4.9-9.7mm females, 4.0-7.7mm males.
[ ] 33.* Chiracanthium mildei (L Kock), slightly larger than inclusum (7-10mm females, 5.8-8.5mm males), and more commonly seen indoors, this species is responsible for more spider bites than any other local species, but the bite is not as dangerous as the Black Widow. Bites tend to swell, redden and be sore, and may lead to ulceration of the skin.
[ ] 34. Clubiona pomoa (Gertsch), 4.1-5.2mm females, 3.5-4.6mm males
[ ] 35. Trachelas
pacificus (Chamberlin & Ivie) Under rocks and debris.
Anyphaenids hunt their prey over vegetation, sometimes
under the bark of
[ ] 36. Aysha incursa (Chamberlin) 5.7-7.0mm
females, 5.5-6.1mm males.
HETEROPODIDAE (Sparassidae) F40 (Giant Crab Spiders)
[ ] 37. Olios
giganteus. Although several Olios spp. appear on Boe’s list,
THOMISIDAE F42 (Crab Spiders)
[ ] 38. Coriarachne utahensis (Gertsch). Noticeable for its disproportionate circumference to thickness ratio, this flat spider slips rapidly sideways into hide-aways under bark. 4.5-9.9mm females, 4.1-6.2mm males.
[ ] 39* Misumena vatia (Clerck). ‘Flower
Spiders’, sit motionless in the
[ ] 40.Misumenoides formosipes (Walckenaer),often found on wild sunflowers. Yellow or white with black blotches. 5.0-11.3mm females, 2.5-3.2mm males.
The three identified Misumenops, and others
we may have (California has 18), have the typical crab-spider shape, but
tend to have more obvious
[ ] 41. Misumenops lepidus (Thorell) Females 5mm; males 3mm. Adults found March through September.
[ ] 42. Misumenops importunus belkini (Schick), Abdomen white or yellow in the female, brownish in the male. Carapace color varies, but with a white band down the center. Females about 5.5mm; males about 3.3mm. Mature as early as January.
[ ] 43. Misumenops quercinus (Schick) Females 3.4-5.5; males 3mm. Mature April through August.
The following two Xysticus, and other species we may have (19 have been found in California) are all similar-looking, dull colored spiders with the long front legs and short back legs that give them the crab look. They live on low vegetation, under bark or stones, occasionally on buildings. They may balloon frequently, for several times I have seen them outdoors on people's clothing.
[ ] 44. Xysticus californicus (Keyserling) Females 6.5-7.0mm; males 4-5mm.
[ ] 45. Xysticus locuples (Keyserling), carapace dark gray to brown or brick red. Abdomen tinged with orange markings. Females 6.5-8.5mm; males 4.4-5.5mm.
[ ] 46. Tibellus chamberlini, long and skinny (abdomen from two and a half to five times longer than wide; front legs extra long), with pale coloring. Can be found in low bushes, but especially like wild grasses, where they rest clinging to the underside of tall blades.
[ ] 47. Tibellus sp. (possibly T. oblongus Walckenaer)
SALTICIDAE F44 (Jumping Spiders)
[ ] 48. Evarcha hoyi (Peckham & Peckham) Brown mixed with white and yellow scales and black hairs, with a light transverse band behind the cephalic portion and a herringbone pattern on the abdomen. Common in tall grass and bushes.4.6-6.3mm females; 4.3-5.5mm males.
Our two known Habronattus species, plus
others that may be found here
[ ] 49. Habronattus festus (=Pellenes brunneus) (Peckham & Peckham) Females about 6mm. ; males 4.5-6.0mm. Mature summer to early fall.
[ ] 50. Habronattus klauserii (=Pellenes klauserii) (Peckham & Peckham) Males 4.5-6.0mm, females slightly larger.
[ ] 51. Metacyrba taeniola (Hentz) Females
5.0-7.2mm, males 4.4-6.0mm. Matures year-round. In comparison to other
jumping spiders, a long, thin species. Carapace an iridescent mahogany
brown on thoracic part
[ ] 52. Metaphidippus watonus (Chamberlin & Ivie) Brown and yellow; found among leaves on leafy foliage, especially oak. Females about 7mm, males about 5.4mm. Mature during summer.
[ ] 53. Phidippus clarus (Keyserling) Females about 10mm; males about 8mm. Mature in late spring and summer.
[ ] 54. Phidippus
johnsoni (Peckham & Peckham) Dramatic looking,
[ ] 55. Sassicus vitis (=Metaphidippus
vitis) (Cockerell) When this small
[ ] 56. Thiodina
n. sp. (see Richman & Cutler, 1978) Females light brown with
white ‘four-square’ pattern on brown in occular area, 7-10mm., oval shaped
abdomen; males with sharper angles to body, darker - brown or reddish brown
- cephalothorax and light abdomen, 5-9mm.