Robert Urtecho, Rosanne Bravin, Mireya Anaya, Christine Benoy
College of the Sequoias, Visalia, California 93277
A list of the vascular plants and plant communities occurring in the
Kaweah Oaks Preserve located seven miles east of Visalia, California is
herein described . The Kaweah Oaks preserve is one of the last concentrations
of Valley Oak Savanna and Riparian Forest found in Tulare county. Of the
174 plants recorded, 45% of these are non-natives. The three largest families
represented at the preserve are Asteraceae, Fabaceae and Poaceae.
When the first Spanish explorers and Friars entered the San Joaquin Valley in search of army deserters and converts, the landscape they witnessed must have been an incredible sight. Huge lakes, such as Buena Vista and Tulare Lake (Laguna de Tache), dominated much of the southern valley (Gist, 1976; MacGruger, 1950). Bulrushes (Tules) covered the marshy shores of these lakes for what was described as " countless leagues." Between the riparian areas and oak savannas, California Praire stretched out for miles and supported huge herds of Pronged Horn antelope and Tule Elk. Little is known of the floristic composition of the praire (Hamilton, 1997). Along the major rivers and streams feeding these lakes were impressive stands of valley oak, sycamore, ash, elderberry, willow, and cottonwood. Along the Kings (Rio de Los Santos Reyes) and Tule (Rio de San Pedro Coyaypich) Rivers thick with growth of these same trees can still be observed. But of all of these rivers, none reached the acclaim of the Kaweah.
The delta of the Kaweah (Gawea, a Yokuts clan) river was a particularly welcoming area for travelers in the early 19th century. The four branches of the Kaweah delta provided water for an impressive growth of riparian plants. Dominated by the valley oaks that produced considerable shade, the area had been inhabited by thousands of Native Americans (Yokuts) over several centuries (Farquhar, 1965; Mayfield, 1993). In the grassland between the riparian areas grew native grasses and sedges that were said to have remained green all year and were excellent for grazing. The locality must have impressed the Franciscan Friars (including Fr. Pedro Muñoz of the Moraga Expedition of 1804) since they suggested that a Presidio and Mission be erected in the area of what is now Visalia (Robinson,1955). One of the last remaining fragments of this once lush delta can be found at the Kaweah Oaks Preserve near Visalia, California.
The Kaweah Oaks Preserve (KOP) is a 324 acre wildlife preserve owned
and operated by the Four Creeks Land Trust. Located seven miles east of
Visalia (where Hwy 198 meets Road 182), KOP has one of the most impressive
collections of Valley Oaks in the Southern San Joaquin Valley. It was originally
purchased by the Nature Conservancy and was later given to the local Trust
for more efficient management.
Since California became part of the United States, agriculture and residential
development have taken a heavy toll on the natural communities of the Central
Valley (Gist, 1976; Heady, 1977). The Kaweah Delta was a particularly appealing
area to settlers and has been changed completely by the resulting development.
The human activities altering the natural communities of KOP include open-range
grazing, dams, water diversion, groundwater pumping, flood control, fuel
wood cutting and other disruptive activities. Humans have also inadvertently
caused major changes in the composition of the plant communities of the
Valley through the introduction of non-native plants such as the brome
grasses, thistles and Mediterranean composites (Bakker, 1971; Heady, 1977).
This preserve is one of the few places where some of the original vegetation
and animals of the Great Valley still thrive. Few locations in the Valley
can boast of the impressive diversity of plants and animals found at KOP.
The Riparian Forest
Riparian Forests are found along the streams and ditches that traverse
KOP. The two largest streams are Deep Creek in the northern border
of KOP and People's Ditch that meanders along the southeastern edge
of the preserve. Although water flow depends on sporatic releases from
the Kaweah Dam, enough water flows through to maintain riparian vegetation.
This plant community is composed of valley oak, sycamore, several species
of willows, ash, button willow, wild grape, virgin's bower, sedges and
grasses. Historical records of the area suggest that the growth was so
thick in the riparian forests that the term "Jungle" was used regularly
to describe the density of the vegetation. Wild grape and virgin's bower
connect the valley floor to the canopy above and grows in such thickness
as to be impenetrable in some localities. Since flood control was implemented
in the valley, this plant community has been in decline. The spraying of
herbicides (Round-up®) by local irrigation districts (who own easements
in the water channels in the Preserve) limits plant productivity.
From the Road 182 parking lot, the first plant community encountered
is the alkali meadow. Historically, spring floods were a common occurance
in the valley. In some locations with poor drainage, water accumulated
and gradually evaporated as the warm season progressed. The inevitable
accumulation of sediments and crystalization of dissolved minerals resulted
in the salinization of the soils in these areas (Heady, 1977). The resulting
alkali meadows are tree-less and harbor a diverse community of salt-tolerant
species. Representative members of this plant community include salt grass,
alkali sacaton, yerba mansa, alkali sedge, Nitrophila, gum plant,
alkali barley and rush. Because of controlled cattle grazing at the preserve,
the alkali meadow is divided into two paddocks. The eastern paddock, closest
to the preserve entrance, has the highest diversity of native vegetation
and has the least amount of grazing stress. In this paddock there is extensive
growth of sedges, yerba mansa, Spergularia and
The western paddock bears the brunt of the grazing which is evident from
a superficial survey of the plants growing in the meadow. Most of the species
are weedy, mediterranean grasses and composites that thrive in disturbed
soils. Vegetational biomass in this paddock is much greater that the eastern
paddock, suggesting that this area is in a continual state of early succession.
A Shannon-Weiner Diversity Index study of the two paddocks by the biology
majors at the College of the Sequoias (1994) determined that the eastern
paddock had the lower biomass but the greatest species diversity.
Valley Oak Savanna
The northern forty acres of the preserve are a good example of this plant community. Well scattered valley oaks create an open canopy that allow for the growth of various native grasses and sedges. The soil in this plant community has a very thick layer of litter that harbors an impressive collection of invertebrate fauna. The plant community is composed of valley oak, Leymus triticoides, Carex sp., Juncus balticus, and several species of mediterranean weeds. In exposed and disturbed areas milk thistle has completely displaced native species. This plant association is reported to have once been very extensive in Tulare county ( Gist, 1976; Griffin, 1977).
Plants growing in disturbed areas and waste places are commonly defined as ruderal. They are usually associated with human disruption in previously pristine areas (Frenkel,1970). Many species are found primarily along Road 182 and on the access road into the preserve. Most ruderal plants are non-native annuals.
Materials and Methods
Collections of flowering and fruiting plants have been made at the preserve
during the Spring and Fall between 1993 and 1998 by the first author. Several
student collections were made during the same time period. Early summer
collections were recently made to complete the seasonal record. Standard
herbarium collection methods were employed to insure the proper curation
of the specimens. Collections were catalogued, dried and preserved for
future reference by docents of the Kaweah Oaks Preserve and are housed
at the College of the Sequoias Herbarium. Nomenclature follows Hickman
(1993) unless otherwise indicated.
The Vascular Plants of the
Kaweah Oaks Preserve
Ferns and Fern Allies
Azolla filiculoides Lam. Mosquito Fern. Occasional at turtle pond.
Marselia vestita Hook. & Grev. ssp. vestita.
Clover fern. Along People's Ditch.
Equisetum hymenale L. ssp.
(Engelm.) Calder & R.H. Taylor. Scouring rush.
Decne. Narrow-leaf Milkweed. North 40.
Amaranthus retroflexus L. Native to tropical America.
Common in disturbed areas. Pigweed.
Anthriscus caucalis M. Bieb. Bur-chervil. Naturalized, native to Eurasia.
Conium maculata L.
Poison hemlock. Naturalized, native to Europe.
Ambrosia acanthicarpa Hook. Annual bur-sage.
Artemesia douglasiana Besser. Mugwort.
Artemesia ludoviciana Nutt. Silver wormwood.
Baccharis douglasii DC. Marsh baccharis. Common at northern end of North 40.
Baccharis salicifolia (Ruiz Lopez & Pavon) Pers. Mule fat. Common near streams.
Bidens frondosa L. Sticktight. Uncommon. Moist soils near dam.
Centaurea solstitialis L. Star thistle. Naturalized, native to S. Europe.
Chamomilla suaveolens (Pursh) Rydb. Pineapple weed. Naturalized, native to NW N. America and NE Asia.
Cirsium vulgare (Savi) Ten. Bull thistle. Naturalized, native to Europe.
Conyza canadensis (L.) Cronq. Horseweed. Common in disturbed areas.
Eclipta prostrata (L.) L. False Daisy. Common near creeks.
Euthamia occidentalis Nutt. Western goldenrod. North 40.
Gnaphalium lutteo-album L. Cudweed. Naturalized, native to Eurasia.
Grindelia camporum var. camporum E. Greene. Gumplant.
Helianthus annuus L. Sunflower.
Hemizonia pungens ssp. maritima (Hook. & Arn.) Torrey & A. Gray. Tarweed, spikeweed.
Heterotheca grandiflora Nutt. Telegraph weed.
Hypochaeris glabra L. Smooth cat's ear. Naturalized, native to Europe.
Lactuca ludoviciana (Nutt.) DC. Western lettuce. Naturalized, native to central United States.
Lactuca serriola L. Prickly lettuce. Naturalized, native to Europe.
Lasthenia chrysantha (A. Gray) E. Greene. Goldfields.
Lessingia glandulifera A.Gray var. glandulifera A. Lane. Sticky Lessingia. Common in sandy soils along ditches.
Picris echioides L. Bristly ox-tongue. Naturalized, native to Europe.
Senecio vulgaris L. Butterweed. Naturalized, native to Eurasia.
Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertner. Milk thistle. Naturalized, native to mediterranean.
Solidago californica Nutt. Goldenrod. North 40.
Sonchus oleraceus L. Sow thistle. Naturalized, native to Europe.
Sonchus asper (L.) Hill. Prickly sow thistle. Naturalized, native to Europe.
Taraxacum officinale Wigg. Dandelion. Naturalized, native to Europe.
Xanthium spinosum L. Spiny Cocklebur.
Xanthium strumarium L.
Alnus rhombifolia Nutt. White Alder. Single specimen
Amsinckia lycopsoides Lehm. Rancher's fireweed.
Heliotropium curassavicum L. Salt heliotrope.
Pectocarya linearis (Ruiz Lopez & Pavon) DC
var. ferocula (I.M. Johnston)
Benth. Popcorn flower.
Brassica nigra (L.) Koch. Black mustard. Naturalized, native to Europe.
Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medikus. Shepherd's Purse. Naturalized, native to Europe.
Cardia draba (L.) Desv. Heart-Podded Hoary Cress. Single collection at weir. Naturalized, native to Eurasia.
Coronopus didymus (l.) Sm. Swinecress. Prostrate plant near picnic area. Naturalized, native to Eurasia.
Descurainia pinnata (Walter) Britton. Tansy mustard.
Raphanus sativus L. Wild radish. Naturalized, native to Mediterranean Europe.
Sisymbrium irio L. London rocket. Naturalized, native to Europe.
Sisymbrium officinale L. Hedge Mustard. Naturalized, native to Europe.
Thysanocarpus curvipes Hook. Lacepod.
C. Presl. Elderberry.
Silene gallica L. Catchfly. Naturalized, native to Europe.
Spergularia macrotheca (Hornem.) Heynth. Sand spurry.
Stellaria media (L.) Villars. Common chickweed. Naturalized, native to SW Europe.
Bassia hyssopifolia (Pallas) Kuntze. Bassia. Common in alkali meadow. Naturalized, native to Eurasia.
Chenopodium album L. Lamb's quarters. Occasional near interpretive area. Naturalized, native to Europe.
Chenopodium ambrosoides L. Mexican tea, Epazote. Common in disturbed areas. Naturalized, native to tropical America.
Chenopodium berlandieri Moq. Pitseed Goosefoot. Common along roads.
Chenopodium pumilio R. Br. Smelly Pigweed. Rare in alkali meadow. Naturalized, native to Australia.
Nitrophila occidentalis (Nutt.) Moq. Western Nitrophila. Common in alkali meadow.
Salsola kali L. Tumbleweed. Along fence line. Naturalized,
native to Eurasia.
Convolvulus arvensis L. Bindweed. Naturalized,
native to Europe.
Lester-Garl. Small crassula. Common in sandy soils near weir. Naturalized,
native to Mediterranean.
Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrader var. lanatas (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai. Watermelon. Naturalized, native to Africa.
Cucurbita foetidiissima Kunth. Coyote melon, stinking gourd. Common throughout preserve.
Marah fabaceous (Naudin) E. Greene. California manroot. Occasional in oak savanna.
Cuscuta salina Engelm. Dodder.
Eremocarpus setigerus (Hook.)
Benth. Dove weed. Genus Eremocarpus has been replaced by Croton
in a recent revision.
Lupinus albifrons Benth. Bush lupine. Rare. Only one plant observed.
Lupinus benthamii A.A. Heller. Spider Lupine. Sandy soil near people's ditch.
Lupinus bicolor Lindley.Miniature lupine. Sandy soil near people's ditch.
Medicago polymorpha L. Bur clover. Naturalized, native to Mediterranean.
Medicago sativa L. Alfalfa. Naturalized, native to Eurasia.
Melilotus officinalis (L.) Pall. Yellow sweet clover. Naturalized, native to Eurasia.
Psoralea spp. Psoralea. New collections needed to det. if Rupertia or Psoralidium .
Vicia sativa L. Spring vetch. Naturalized, native to Europe.
Vicia villosa Roth. Hairy vetch. Naturalized, native
Quercus lobata Nee.
Frankenia salina (Molina) I.M. Johnston. Alkali Heath. Uncommon in alkali meadows.
Erodium botrys (Cav.) Bertol. Long-Beaked Storksbill. Naturalized, native to Europe.
Erodium cicutarium (L.) L'Her. Redstem Storksbill. Naturalized, native to Eurasia.
Erodium moschatum (L.) L'Her. Whitestem Storksbill. Naturalized, native to Europe.
L. Cut-Leaved Geranium. Naturalized, native to Europe.
Ribes quercetorum E.
Greene. Oak gooseberry. One plant growing near weir.
Myriopyhyllum hippuriodes Torrey & A. Gray.
Western milfoil. People's ditch.
Pholistoma aurtium (Lindley) Lilja. Fiesta flower.
Carya illinoensis K. Koch.
Pecan tree. Naturalized, native to central United States. One specimen
found in the North 40.
Lamium amplexicaule L. Henbit. Naturalized, native to Eurasia.
Marrubium vulgare L. Horehound. Naturalized, native to Europe.
Mentha spicata L. var. spicata. Spearmint. Naturalized, native to Europe.
Nepeta cataria L. Catnip. Weir trail. Naturalized, native to Europe.
Stachys albens A. Gray.
White hedge nettle.
Ammania coccinea Rottb. Long-Leaved Ammania. Occasional in creekbeds and moist localities.
Malva neglecta Wallr.
Common Mallow. Naturalized, native to Eurasia.
Ficus carica L. Domesticated fig. Naturalized, native to Mediterranean.
Maclura pomifera (Raf.) C. Schneider. Osage orange. Naturalized, native to S. Great Plains.
Morus alba L. Mulberry. Naturalized, native to
Eucalyptus globulus Labill. Blue gum. Naturalized,
native to Australia.
Fraxinus latifolia Benth. Oregon ash. Occasional along streambanks.
Ligusticum ovalifolium. California Privet. Escaped
from cultivation, originally from Asia. Single collection from North 40.
Epilobium brachycarpum C. Presl. Willow Herb. Common along streams.
Ludwigia peploides (Kunth)
Raven. Water primrose. Occasional along streams.
Cham. California poppy.
Phytolacca americana L.
Poke weed. Naturalized, native to E. United States.
Plantago major L. Common Plantain. Naturalized, native to Europe.
Plantago lanceolata L. English Plantain. Naturalized,
native to Europe.
Platanus racemosa Nutt.
Western sycamore. Common near streams.
Eriogonum angulosum Benth. Buckwheat. Uncommon on sandy soils along ditches.
Polygonum arenastrum Boreau. Common Knotweed. Ocassional in alkali praire.
Polygonum persicaria L. Lady's thumb. Naturalized, native to Europe.
Rumex crispus L. Lengua de vaca. Naturalized, native to Eurasia.
Rumex occidentalis S.
Watson. Western Dock. Native dock lacking tubercules.
Calandrinia ciliata (Ruiz Lopez& Pavon) DC. Red maids. North 40.
Claytonia perfoliataWilld. Miner's lettuce. Common in oak savanna in early spring.
Anagallis arvensis L. Scarlet pimpernel. Naturalized,
native to Europe. North 40.
Ranunculus californicus Benth. California buttercup. Rare in western paddock.
Clematis ligusticifolia Nutt. Virgin's bower. Yerba de chiva. Common along streambanks.
Rosa californica Cham. & Schldl. California Rose. Common along trail #2. .
Rubus discolor Weihe & Nees Himalayan blackberry. Naturalized, native to Eurasia.
California blackberry. Common in North 40.
Cephalanthus occidentalis L. var. californicus Benth. Button willow. Along road 182 at fence line.
Galium aparine L. Bedstraw.
Oak Savanna. Found near wier.
Populus fremontii S. Watson. Cottonwood.
Salix exigua Nutt. Narrow-leaved Willow. White willow near weir.
Salix gooddingii C. Ball. Goodding's Black Willow.
Salix laevigata Bebb. Red Willow. North 40.
Salix lasiolepis Benth. Arroyo willow.
Salix lucida Muhlenb. ssp lasiandra (Benth)
E. Murray. Shining Willow. Found near turtle pond.
(Nutt.) Hook. & Arn. Yerba mansa. Common in alkali meadows of the
Mimulus cardinalis Benth. Scarlet monkey flower. Single specimen along creek at trail #2.
Mimulus moschatus Lindley . Musk Monkey Flower. Few plants along People's ditch.
Mimulus guttatus DC. Seep Spring monkey flower.
Verbascum thapsus L. Mullein. Naturalized, native to Eurasia.
L. Veronica speedwell.
(Miller) Swingle. Tree of Heaven. Single collection in alkali meadow;
associated with Urtica dioica
Datura stramonium L. Tall jimson weed. Naturalized, native to Mexico.
Datura wrightii Regel. Toloache.
Nicotiana acuminata Hook var. multiflora (Phillipi ) Reiche. Tobacco. Naturalized, native to S. America.
Nicotiana glauca Graham. Tree tobacco. Naturalized, native to S. America.
Solanum americanum Miller.
Urtica dioica L. var. holosericea. (Nutt.) Thorne. Stinging nettle. Common Oak Woodlands.
Urtica urens L.
Dwarf nettle. Naturalized, native to Europe.
Verbena bonariensis L. Verbena. Uncommon. Oak woodland. Naturalized, native to S. America.
Phoradendron macrophyllum (Engelm.) Cockerell. Bigleaf mistletoe.
Phoradendron villosum (Nutt.) Nutt. Oak mistletoe.
Vitis californica Benth. California wild grape. Common along streams.
Vitis vinifera L. Cultivated grape. Rare along
L. Puncture vine. Common in disturbed areas. Naturalized, native to
Sagittaria montevidensis Cham. & Schldl. Tule potato. Single specimen in vicinity of the dam.
Carex barbarae Dewey. Santa Barbara sedge.
Carex densa L. Bailey. Alkali sedge. Common in alkali meadow.
Carex douglasii Boott. Douglas' sedge. Alkali soils in meadow and forest.
Carex praegracilis W. Boott. Sedge. Oak savanna.
Eleocaris montevidensis Kunth. Spikerush. Occasional along People's Ditch
Scirpus acutus Bigelowvar. occidentalis (S. Watson) Beetle. Tule. Rare along People's Ditch.
Juncus balticus Willd. Rush. Common in alkali meadow and oak savanna.
Juncus bufonius L. Toad rush. Occasional in grassy areas.
Lemna minor L. Duckweed.
Dichlostemma capitatum Alph. Wood. Blue dicks. Common in Oak woodland.
Avena barbata Link. Slender wild oat. Naturalized, native to Europe.
Avena fatua L. Wild Oats. Naturalized, native to Europe.
Briza minor L. Quaking grass. Naturalized, native to SW Europe.
Bromus diandrus Roth. Ripgut grass. Naturalized, native to Europe.
Bromus hordeaceus L. Soft chess. Naturalized, native to Eurasia.
Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. Bermuda grass. Naturalized, native to Africa.
Distichlis spicata (L.) E. Greene. Saltgrass. Common in alkali meadow.
Hordeum intercedens Nevski. Alkali barley. Common in alkali meadow.
Hordeum murinum L. ssp. glaucum (Steudel) Tzvelev. Barley. Naturalized, native to Europe.
Leersia oryzoides (L.) Sw. Rice Cutgrass. Uncommon along streams.
Leymus triticoides (Buckley) Pilger. Wild rye.
Lolium multiflorum Lam. Rye grass. Naturalized, native to Europe.
Paspalum dilatatum Poiret. Dallis grass. Naturalized, native to S. America.
Poa annua L. Annual bluegrass. Naturalized, native to Europe.
Polypogon monspeliensis (L.) Desf. Annual beard grass. Naturalized, native to SW Europe.
Secale cereale L. Rye. Naturalized, native to Asia.
Setaria gracilis Kunth. Setaria.
Sorghum halapense (L.) Pers. Johnson grass. Naturalized, native to Mediterranean.
Sporobolus airoides (Torrey) Torrey. Alkali sacaton. Common Alkai Meadow.
Vulpia myuros (L.) C. Gmelin. Rat Fescue. Naturalized,
native to Europe.
Typha latifolia L. Cattail. Common along streams.
Ailanthus altissima AMAM = Alkali Meadow
RF = Riparian Forest
RU = Ruderal
DB = Dry Banks
Alnus rhombifolia RF
Amaranthus retroflexus RU
Ambrosia acanthicarpa AM, RF, RU, DB
Amsinckia lycopsoides AM, RU, DB
Anagallis arvensis AM, RF, RU
Anemopsis californica AM
Anthriscus caucalis RF, RU
Artemesia douglasiana RF
Artemesia ludoviciana RF
Asclepias fascicularis RU, DB
Avena barbata RU, DB
Avena fatua RU, DB
Azolla filiculoides RF
Baccharis douglasii RF
Baccharis salicifolia RF
Bassia hyssopifolia AM
Bidens frondosa RF
Brassica nigra RU
Briza minor RU
Bromus diandrus AM, RF, RU, DB
Bromus hordeaceus AM, RF, RU, DB
Capsella bursa-pastoris AM, RU
Cardia draba RF
Carex barbarae RF
Carex densa AM
Carex douglasii AM, RF
Carex praegracilis RF
Carya illinoensis RF
Centaurea solstitialis AM, RF, RU, DB
Cephalanthus occidentalis RF
Cercis occidentalis RF
Chamomilla suaveolens RU, DB
Chenopodium album AM, RU, DB
Chenopodium ambrosoides RF, RU, DB
Chenopodium berlandieri AM
Chenopodium pumilio AM
Cirsium vulgare AM, RF, RU, DB
Citrullus colocynthis AM
Claytonia perfoliata RF
Clematis ligusticifolia RF
Conium maculata RF
Convolvulus arvensis RU
Conyza canadensis AL, RF, RU
Coronopus didymus RU
Crassula tillaea RU
Cucurbita foetidiissima AM
Cuscuta californica AM
Cynodon dactylon RF
Cyperus acuminatus RF
Datura stramonium RF, RU, DB
Datura wrightii AM, RF, RU
Descurainia pinnata RF
Dichlostemma capitatum RF
Distichlis spicata RF, DB
Eclipta prostrata RF
Eleocaris montevidensis RF
Epilobium brachycarpum RF
Equisetum hymenale RF
Eremocarpus setigerus RU, DB
Eriogonum angulosum RU
Erodium botrys RF, RU, DB
Erodium cicutarium RF, RU, DB
Erodium moschatum RF, RU, DB
Eschscholzia californica RU
Eucalyptus globulus RU
Euthamia occidentalis AM
Ficus carica RU
Frankenia salina AM
Fraxinus latifolia RF
Galium aparine RF
Geranium dissectum RU
Gnaphalium lutteo-album RU, DB
Grindelia camporum AM
Helianthus annuus RU, DB
Heliotropium curassavicum AM, RU, DB
Hemizonia pungens AM, RU, DB
Heterotheca grandiflora RF, RU, DB
Hordeum intercedens AM
Hordeum murinum AM, RU, DB
Hypochaeris glabra RU, DB
Juncus balticus AM, RF, RU
Juncus bufonius RU
Lactuca ludoviciana AM, RF, RU, DB
Lactuca serriola AM, RU
Lamium amplexicaule RF
Lasthenia chrysantha AM
Leersia oryzoides RF
Lemna minor RF
Lessingia glandulifera RU, DB
Leymus triticoides AM, RF
Ligusticum ovalifolium RF
Lolium multiflorum AM RU
Ludwigia peploides RF
Lupinus albifrons RF
Lupinus benthamii RU
Lupinus bicolor RU, DB
Maclura pomifera RF
Malva neglecta RF, DB
Marah fabaceous RF
Marrubium vulgare RF
Marselia vestita RF
Medicago polymorpha AM, RF
Medicago sativa RF
Melilotus officinalis AM,RU
Mentha spicata RF
Mimulus cardinalis RF
Mimulus guttatus RF
Mimulus moschatus RF
Morus alba RU
Myriopyhyllum hippuriodes RF
Nepeta cataria RF
Nicotiana acuminata AM, RF, RU
Nicotiana glauca RF, RU
Nitrophila occidentalis AM
Paspalum dilatatum RF
Pectocarya linearis DB
Pholistoma aurtium RF
Phoradendron macrophyllum RF
Phoradendron villosum RF
Phytolacca americana RU
Picris echioides AM, RF, RU, DB
Plagiobothrys canescens AM, RU, DB
Plantago lanceolata AM
Plantago major RU
Platanus racemosa RF
Poa annua AM, RU
Polygonum arenastrum RU
Polygonum persicaria RF
Polypogon monspeliensis RF
Populus fremontii RF
Psoralea spp. RF
Quercus lobata RF
Ranunculus californicus AM
Raphanus sativus RU, DB
Ribes quercetorum RF
Rosa californica RF
Rubus discolor RF
Rubus ursinus RF
Rumex crispus AM, RU
Rumex occidentalis RF
Sagittaria montevidensis RF
Salix exigua RF
Salix gooddingii RF
Salix laevigata RF
Salix lasiolepis RF
Salix lucida RF
Salsola kali AM, RU, DB
Sambucus mexicana RF
Scirpus acutus RF
Secale cereale AM
Senecio vulgaris AM, RU
Setaria gracilis RF, RU
Silene gallica RF
Silybum marianum AM, RU
Sisymbrium irio RU
Sisymbrium officinale RU
Solanum americanum RF
Solidago californica RF
Sonchus asper AM, RU, DB
Sonchus oleraceus RU
Sorghum halapense RF, RU
Spergularia macrotheca AM
Sporobolus airoides AM
Stachys albens RF
Stellaria media AM, RF, RU
Taraxacum officinale AM, RU
Thysanocarpus curvipes AM, RF, RU
Tribulus terrestris RU
Typha latifolia RF
Urtica dioica AM, RF, RU
Urtica urens RF
Verbascum thapsus AM, RU
Verbena bonariensis RF
Veronica serpyllifolia RF
Vicia sativa AM
Vicia villosa AM
Vitis californica RF
Vitis vinifera RU
Vulpia myuros AM, RU
Xanthium spinosum AM, RF, RU, DB
Xanthium strumarium AM, RF, RU
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