A Checklist of the Plants of the
Kaweah Oaks Preserve,
Tulare County, California

Robert Urtecho, Rosanne Bravin, Mireya Anaya, Christine Benoy
College of the Sequoias, Visalia, California 93277

A list of the vascular plants and plant communities occurring in the Kaweah Oaks Preserve located seven miles east of Visalia, California is herein described . The Kaweah Oaks preserve is one of the last concentrations of Valley Oak Savanna and Riparian Forest found in Tulare county. Of the 174 plants recorded, 45% of these are non-natives. The three largest families represented at the preserve are Asteraceae, Fabaceae and Poaceae.


When the first Spanish explorers and Friars entered the San Joaquin Valley in search of army deserters and converts, the landscape they witnessed must have been an incredible sight. Huge lakes, such as Buena Vista and Tulare Lake (Laguna de Tache), dominated much of the southern valley (Gist, 1976; MacGruger, 1950). Bulrushes (Tules) covered the marshy shores of these lakes for what was described as " countless leagues." Between the riparian areas and oak savannas, California Praire stretched out for miles and supported huge herds of Pronged Horn antelope and Tule Elk. Little is known of the floristic composition of the praire (Hamilton, 1997). Along the major rivers and streams feeding these lakes were impressive stands of valley oak, sycamore, ash, elderberry, willow, and cottonwood. Along the Kings (Rio de Los Santos Reyes) and Tule (Rio de San Pedro Coyaypich) Rivers thick with growth of these same trees can still be observed. But of all of these rivers, none reached the acclaim of the Kaweah.

The delta of the Kaweah (Gawea, a Yokuts clan) river was a particularly welcoming area for travelers in the early 19th century. The four branches of the Kaweah delta provided water for an impressive growth of riparian plants. Dominated by the valley oaks that produced considerable shade, the area had been inhabited by thousands of Native Americans (Yokuts) over several centuries (Farquhar, 1965; Mayfield, 1993). In the grassland between the riparian areas grew native grasses and sedges that were said to have remained green all year and were excellent for grazing. The locality must have impressed the Franciscan Friars (including Fr. Pedro Muñoz of the Moraga Expedition of 1804) since they suggested that a Presidio and Mission be erected in the area of what is now Visalia (Robinson,1955). One of the last remaining fragments of this once lush delta can be found at the Kaweah Oaks Preserve near Visalia, California.

The Kaweah Oaks Preserve (KOP) is a 324 acre wildlife preserve owned and operated by the Four Creeks Land Trust. Located seven miles east of Visalia (where Hwy 198 meets Road 182), KOP has one of the most impressive collections of Valley Oaks in the Southern San Joaquin Valley. It was originally purchased by the Nature Conservancy and was later given to the local Trust for more efficient management.

Since California became part of the United States, agriculture and residential development have taken a heavy toll on the natural communities of the Central Valley (Gist, 1976; Heady, 1977). The Kaweah Delta was a particularly appealing area to settlers and has been changed completely by the resulting development. The human activities altering the natural communities of KOP include open-range grazing, dams, water diversion, groundwater pumping, flood control, fuel wood cutting and other disruptive activities. Humans have also inadvertently caused major changes in the composition of the plant communities of the Valley through the introduction of non-native plants such as the brome grasses, thistles and Mediterranean composites (Bakker, 1971; Heady, 1977). This preserve is one of the few places where some of the original vegetation and animals of the Great Valley still thrive. Few locations in the Valley can boast of the impressive diversity of plants and animals found at KOP.

Plant Communities

The Riparian Forest

Riparian Forests are found along the streams and ditches that traverse KOP. The two largest streams are Deep Creek in the northern border of KOP and People's Ditch that meanders along the southeastern edge of the preserve. Although water flow depends on sporatic releases from the Kaweah Dam, enough water flows through to maintain riparian vegetation. This plant community is composed of valley oak, sycamore, several species of willows, ash, button willow, wild grape, virgin's bower, sedges and grasses. Historical records of the area suggest that the growth was so thick in the riparian forests that the term "Jungle" was used regularly to describe the density of the vegetation. Wild grape and virgin's bower connect the valley floor to the canopy above and grows in such thickness as to be impenetrable in some localities. Since flood control was implemented in the valley, this plant community has been in decline. The spraying of herbicides (Round-up®) by local irrigation districts (who own easements in the water channels in the Preserve) limits plant productivity.

Alkali Meadow

From the Road 182 parking lot, the first plant community encountered is the alkali meadow. Historically, spring floods were a common occurance in the valley. In some locations with poor drainage, water accumulated and gradually evaporated as the warm season progressed. The inevitable accumulation of sediments and crystalization of dissolved minerals resulted in the salinization of the soils in these areas (Heady, 1977). The resulting alkali meadows are tree-less and harbor a diverse community of salt-tolerant species. Representative members of this plant community include salt grass, alkali sacaton, yerba mansa, alkali sedge, Nitrophila, gum plant, Bassia, alkali barley and rush. Because of controlled cattle grazing at the preserve, the alkali meadow is divided into two paddocks. The eastern paddock, closest to the preserve entrance, has the highest diversity of native vegetation and has the least amount of grazing stress. In this paddock there is extensive growth of sedges, yerba mansa, Spergularia and Nitrophila. The western paddock bears the brunt of the grazing which is evident from a superficial survey of the plants growing in the meadow. Most of the species are weedy, mediterranean grasses and composites that thrive in disturbed soils. Vegetational biomass in this paddock is much greater that the eastern paddock, suggesting that this area is in a continual state of early succession. A Shannon-Weiner Diversity Index study of the two paddocks by the biology majors at the College of the Sequoias (1994) determined that the eastern paddock had the lower biomass but the greatest species diversity.

Valley Oak Savanna

The northern forty acres of the preserve are a good example of this plant community. Well scattered valley oaks create an open canopy that allow for the growth of various native grasses and sedges. The soil in this plant community has a very thick layer of litter that harbors an impressive collection of invertebrate fauna. The plant community is composed of valley oak, Leymus triticoides, Carex sp., Juncus balticus, and several species of mediterranean weeds. In exposed and disturbed areas milk thistle has completely displaced native species. This plant association is reported to have once been very extensive in Tulare county ( Gist, 1976; Griffin, 1977).

Ruderal Vegetation

Plants growing in disturbed areas and waste places are commonly defined as ruderal. They are usually associated with human disruption in previously pristine areas (Frenkel,1970). Many species are found primarily along Road 182 and on the access road into the preserve. Most ruderal plants are non-native annuals.

Materials and Methods

Collections of flowering and fruiting plants have been made at the preserve during the Spring and Fall between 1993 and 1998 by the first author. Several student collections were made during the same time period. Early summer collections were recently made to complete the seasonal record. Standard herbarium collection methods were employed to insure the proper curation of the specimens. Collections were catalogued, dried and preserved for future reference by docents of the Kaweah Oaks Preserve and are housed at the College of the Sequoias Herbarium. Nomenclature follows Hickman (1993) unless otherwise indicated.

The Vascular Plants of the

Kaweah Oaks Preserve

Ferns and Fern Allies


Azolla filiculoides Lam. Mosquito Fern. Occasional at turtle pond.


Marselia vestita Hook. & Grev. ssp. vestita. Clover fern. Along People's Ditch.


Equisetum hymenale L. ssp. affine (Engelm.) Calder & R.H. Taylor. Scouring rush.




Asclepias fascicularis Decne. Narrow-leaf Milkweed. North 40.


Amaranthus retroflexus L. Native to tropical America. Common in disturbed areas. Pigweed.


Anthriscus caucalis M. Bieb. Bur-chervil. Naturalized, native to Eurasia.

Conium maculata L. Poison hemlock. Naturalized, native to Europe.


Ambrosia acanthicarpa Hook. Annual bur-sage.

Artemesia douglasiana Besser. Mugwort.

Artemesia ludoviciana Nutt. Silver wormwood.

Baccharis douglasii DC. Marsh baccharis. Common at northern end of North 40.

Baccharis salicifolia (Ruiz Lopez & Pavon) Pers. Mule fat. Common near streams.

Bidens frondosa L. Sticktight. Uncommon. Moist soils near dam.

Centaurea solstitialis L. Star thistle. Naturalized, native to S. Europe.

Chamomilla suaveolens (Pursh) Rydb. Pineapple weed. Naturalized, native to NW N. America and NE Asia.

Cirsium vulgare (Savi) Ten. Bull thistle. Naturalized, native to Europe.

Conyza canadensis (L.) Cronq. Horseweed. Common in disturbed areas.

Eclipta prostrata (L.) L. False Daisy. Common near creeks.

Euthamia occidentalis Nutt. Western goldenrod. North 40.

Gnaphalium lutteo-album L. Cudweed. Naturalized, native to Eurasia.

Grindelia camporum var. camporum E. Greene. Gumplant.

Helianthus annuus L. Sunflower.

Hemizonia pungens ssp. maritima (Hook. & Arn.) Torrey & A. Gray. Tarweed, spikeweed.

Heterotheca grandiflora Nutt. Telegraph weed.

Hypochaeris glabra L. Smooth cat's ear. Naturalized, native to Europe.

Lactuca ludoviciana (Nutt.) DC. Western lettuce. Naturalized, native to central United States.

Lactuca serriola L. Prickly lettuce. Naturalized, native to Europe.

Lasthenia chrysantha (A. Gray) E. Greene. Goldfields.

Lessingia glandulifera A.Gray var. glandulifera A. Lane. Sticky Lessingia. Common in sandy soils along ditches.

Picris echioides L. Bristly ox-tongue. Naturalized, native to Europe.

Senecio vulgaris L. Butterweed. Naturalized, native to Eurasia.

Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertner. Milk thistle. Naturalized, native to mediterranean.

Solidago californica Nutt. Goldenrod. North 40.

Sonchus oleraceus L. Sow thistle. Naturalized, native to Europe.

Sonchus asper (L.) Hill. Prickly sow thistle. Naturalized, native to Europe.

Taraxacum officinale Wigg. Dandelion. Naturalized, native to Europe.

Xanthium spinosum L. Spiny Cocklebur.

Xanthium strumarium L. Large-leaf Cocklebur.


Alnus rhombifolia Nutt. White Alder. Single specimen near weir.


Amsinckia lycopsoides Lehm. Rancher's fireweed.

Heliotropium curassavicum L. Salt heliotrope.

Pectocarya linearis (Ruiz Lopez & Pavon) DC  var. ferocula (I.M. Johnston)

Plagiobothrys canescens Benth. Popcorn flower.


Brassica nigra (L.) Koch. Black mustard. Naturalized, native to Europe.

Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medikus. Shepherd's Purse. Naturalized, native to Europe.

Cardia draba (L.) Desv. Heart-Podded Hoary Cress. Single collection at weir. Naturalized, native to Eurasia.

Coronopus didymus (l.) Sm. Swinecress. Prostrate plant near picnic area. Naturalized, native to Eurasia.

Descurainia pinnata (Walter) Britton. Tansy mustard.

Raphanus sativus L. Wild radish. Naturalized, native to Mediterranean Europe.

Sisymbrium irio L. London rocket. Naturalized, native to Europe.

Sisymbrium officinale L. Hedge Mustard. Naturalized, native to Europe.

Thysanocarpus curvipes Hook. Lacepod.


Sambucus mexicana C. Presl. Elderberry.


Silene gallica L. Catchfly. Naturalized, native to Europe.

Spergularia macrotheca (Hornem.) Heynth. Sand spurry.

Stellaria media (L.) Villars. Common chickweed. Naturalized, native to SW Europe.


Bassia hyssopifolia (Pallas) Kuntze. Bassia. Common in alkali meadow. Naturalized, native to Eurasia.

Chenopodium album L. Lamb's quarters. Occasional near interpretive area. Naturalized, native to Europe.

Chenopodium ambrosoides L. Mexican tea, Epazote. Common in disturbed areas. Naturalized, native to tropical America.

Chenopodium berlandieri Moq. Pitseed Goosefoot. Common along roads.

Chenopodium pumilio R. Br. Smelly Pigweed. Rare in alkali meadow. Naturalized, native to Australia.

Nitrophila occidentalis (Nutt.) Moq. Western Nitrophila. Common in alkali meadow.

Salsola kali L. Tumbleweed. Along fence line. Naturalized, native to Eurasia.


Convolvulus arvensis L. Bindweed. Naturalized, native to Europe.


Crassula tillaea Lester-Garl. Small crassula. Common in sandy soils near weir. Naturalized, native to Mediterranean.


Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrader var. lanatas (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai. Watermelon. Naturalized, native to Africa.

Cucurbita foetidiissima Kunth. Coyote melon, stinking gourd. Common throughout preserve.

Marah fabaceous (Naudin) E. Greene. California manroot. Occasional in oak savanna.


Cuscuta salina Engelm. Dodder.


Eremocarpus setigerus (Hook.) Benth. Dove weed. Genus Eremocarpus has been replaced by Croton in a recent revision.


Cercis occidentalis Torr. Western Redbud. Rare.

Lupinus albifrons Benth. Bush lupine. Rare. Only one plant observed.

Lupinus benthamii A.A. Heller. Spider Lupine. Sandy soil near people's ditch.

Lupinus bicolor Lindley.Miniature lupine. Sandy soil near people's ditch.

Medicago polymorpha L. Bur clover. Naturalized, native to Mediterranean.

Medicago sativa L. Alfalfa. Naturalized, native to Eurasia.

Melilotus officinalis (L.) Pall. Yellow sweet clover. Naturalized, native to Eurasia.

Psoralea spp. Psoralea. New collections needed to det. if Rupertia or Psoralidium .

Vicia sativa L. Spring vetch. Naturalized, native to Europe.

Vicia villosa Roth. Hairy vetch. Naturalized, native to Europe.


Quercus lobata Nee. Valley oak.


Frankenia salina (Molina) I.M. Johnston. Alkali Heath. Uncommon in alkali meadows.


Erodium botrys (Cav.) Bertol. Long-Beaked Storksbill. Naturalized, native to Europe.

Erodium cicutarium (L.) L'Her. Redstem Storksbill. Naturalized, native to Eurasia.

Erodium moschatum (L.) L'Her. Whitestem Storksbill. Naturalized, native to Europe.

Geranium dissectum L. Cut-Leaved Geranium. Naturalized, native to Europe.


Ribes quercetorum E. Greene. Oak gooseberry. One plant growing near weir.


Myriopyhyllum hippuriodes Torrey & A. Gray. Western milfoil. People's ditch.


Pholistoma aurtium (Lindley) Lilja. Fiesta flower.


Carya illinoensis K. Koch. Pecan tree. Naturalized, native to central United States. One specimen found in the North 40.


Lamium amplexicaule L. Henbit. Naturalized, native to Eurasia.

Marrubium vulgare L. Horehound. Naturalized, native to Europe.

Mentha spicata L. var. spicata. Spearmint. Naturalized, native to Europe.

Nepeta cataria L. Catnip. Weir trail. Naturalized, native to Europe.

Stachys albens A. Gray. White hedge nettle.


Ammania coccinea Rottb. Long-Leaved Ammania. Occasional in creekbeds and moist localities.


Malva neglecta Wallr. Common Mallow. Naturalized, native to Eurasia.


Ficus carica L. Domesticated fig. Naturalized, native to Mediterranean.

Maclura pomifera (Raf.) C. Schneider. Osage orange. Naturalized, native to S. Great Plains.

Morus alba L. Mulberry. Naturalized, native to China.


Eucalyptus globulus Labill. Blue gum. Naturalized, native to Australia.


Fraxinus latifolia Benth. Oregon ash. Occasional along streambanks.

Ligusticum ovalifolium. California Privet. Escaped from cultivation, originally from Asia. Single collection from North 40.


Epilobium brachycarpum C. Presl. Willow Herb. Common along streams.

Ludwigia peploides (Kunth) Raven. Water primrose. Occasional along streams.


Eschscholzia californica Cham. California poppy.


Phytolacca americana L. Poke weed. Naturalized, native to E. United States.


Plantago major L. Common Plantain. Naturalized, native to Europe.

Plantago lanceolata L. English Plantain. Naturalized, native to Europe.


Platanus racemosa Nutt. Western sycamore. Common near streams.


Eriogonum angulosum Benth. Buckwheat. Uncommon on sandy soils along ditches.

Polygonum arenastrum Boreau. Common Knotweed. Ocassional in alkali praire.

Polygonum persicaria L. Lady's thumb. Naturalized, native to Europe.

Rumex crispus L. Lengua de vaca. Naturalized, native to Eurasia.

Rumex occidentalis S. Watson. Western Dock. Native dock lacking tubercules.


Calandrinia ciliata (Ruiz Lopez& Pavon) DC. Red maids. North 40.

Claytonia perfoliataWilld. Miner's lettuce. Common in oak savanna in early spring.


Anagallis arvensis L. Scarlet pimpernel. Naturalized, native to Europe. North 40.


Ranunculus californicus Benth. California buttercup. Rare in western paddock.

Clematis ligusticifolia Nutt. Virgin's bower. Yerba de chiva. Common along streambanks.


Rosa californica Cham. & Schldl. California Rose. Common along trail #2. .

Rubus discolor Weihe & Nees Himalayan blackberry. Naturalized, native to Eurasia.

Rubus ursinus. California blackberry. Common in North 40.


Cephalanthus occidentalis L. var. californicus Benth. Button willow. Along road 182 at fence line.

Galium aparine L. Bedstraw. Oak Savanna. Found near wier.


Populus fremontii S. Watson. Cottonwood.

Salix exigua Nutt. Narrow-leaved Willow. White willow near weir.

Salix gooddingii C. Ball. Goodding's Black Willow.

Salix laevigata Bebb. Red Willow. North 40.

Salix lasiolepis Benth. Arroyo willow.

Salix lucida Muhlenb. ssp lasiandra (Benth) E. Murray. Shining Willow. Found near turtle pond.


Anemopsis californica (Nutt.) Hook. & Arn. Yerba mansa. Common in alkali meadows of the east paddock.


Mimulus cardinalis Benth. Scarlet monkey flower. Single specimen along creek at trail #2.

Mimulus moschatus Lindley . Musk Monkey Flower. Few plants along People's ditch.

Mimulus guttatus DC. Seep Spring monkey flower.

Verbascum thapsus L. Mullein. Naturalized, native to Eurasia.

Veronica serpyllifolia L. Veronica speedwell.


Ailanthus altissima (Miller) Swingle. Tree of Heaven. Single collection in alkali meadow; associated with Urtica dioica .


Datura stramonium L. Tall jimson weed. Naturalized, native to Mexico.

Datura wrightii Regel. Toloache.

Nicotiana acuminata Hook var. multiflora (Phillipi ) Reiche. Tobacco. Naturalized, native to S. America.

Nicotiana glauca Graham. Tree tobacco. Naturalized, native to S. America.

Solanum americanum Miller. Nightshade.


Urtica dioica L. var. holosericea. (Nutt.) Thorne. Stinging nettle. Common Oak Woodlands.

Urtica urens L. Dwarf nettle. Naturalized, native to Europe.


Verbena bonariensis L. Verbena. Uncommon. Oak woodland. Naturalized, native to S. America.


Phoradendron macrophyllum (Engelm.) Cockerell. Bigleaf mistletoe.

Phoradendron villosum (Nutt.) Nutt. Oak mistletoe.


Vitis californica Benth. California wild grape. Common along streams.

Vitis vinifera L. Cultivated grape. Rare along roadsides.


Tribulus terrestris L. Puncture vine. Common in disturbed areas. Naturalized, native to Mediterranean.



Sagittaria montevidensis Cham. & Schldl. Tule potato. Single specimen in vicinity of the dam.


Carex barbarae Dewey. Santa Barbara sedge.

Carex densa L. Bailey. Alkali sedge. Common in alkali meadow.

Carex douglasii Boott. Douglas' sedge. Alkali soils in meadow and forest.

Carex praegracilis W. Boott. Sedge. Oak savanna.

Eleocaris montevidensis Kunth. Spikerush. Occasional along People's Ditch

Scirpus acutus Bigelowvar. occidentalis (S. Watson) Beetle. Tule. Rare along People's Ditch.


Juncus balticus Willd. Rush. Common in alkali meadow and oak savanna.

Juncus bufonius L. Toad rush. Occasional in grassy areas.


Lemna minor L. Duckweed.


Dichlostemma capitatum Alph. Wood. Blue dicks. Common in Oak woodland.


Avena barbata Link. Slender wild oat. Naturalized, native to Europe.

Avena fatua L. Wild Oats. Naturalized, native to Europe.

Briza minor L. Quaking grass. Naturalized, native to SW Europe.

Bromus diandrus Roth. Ripgut grass. Naturalized, native to Europe.

Bromus hordeaceus L. Soft chess. Naturalized, native to Eurasia.

Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. Bermuda grass. Naturalized, native to Africa.

Distichlis spicata (L.) E. Greene. Saltgrass. Common in alkali meadow.

Hordeum intercedens Nevski. Alkali barley. Common in alkali meadow.

Hordeum murinum L. ssp. glaucum (Steudel) Tzvelev. Barley. Naturalized, native to Europe.

Leersia oryzoides (L.) Sw. Rice Cutgrass. Uncommon along streams.

Leymus triticoides (Buckley) Pilger. Wild rye.

Lolium multiflorum Lam. Rye grass. Naturalized, native to Europe.

Paspalum dilatatum Poiret. Dallis grass. Naturalized, native to S. America.

Poa annua L. Annual bluegrass. Naturalized, native to Europe.

Polypogon monspeliensis (L.) Desf. Annual beard grass. Naturalized, native to SW Europe.

Secale cereale L. Rye. Naturalized, native to Asia.

Setaria gracilis Kunth. Setaria.

Sorghum halapense (L.) Pers. Johnson grass. Naturalized, native to Mediterranean.

Sporobolus airoides (Torrey) Torrey. Alkali sacaton. Common Alkai Meadow.

Vulpia myuros (L.) C. Gmelin. Rat Fescue. Naturalized, native to Europe.


Typha latifolia L. Cattail. Common along streams.

Species Distribution
AM = Alkali Meadow
RF = Riparian Forest
RU = Ruderal
DB = Dry Banks
Ailanthus altissima   AM
Alnus rhombifolia      RF
Amaranthus retroflexus   RU
Ambrosia acanthicarpa   AM, RF, RU, DB
Ammania coccinea
Amsinckia lycopsoides   AM, RU, DB
Anagallis arvensis   AM, RF, RU
Anemopsis californica   AM
Anthriscus caucalis      RF, RU
Artemesia douglasiana    RF
Artemesia ludoviciana    RF
Asclepias fascicularis     RU, DB
Avena barbata    RU, DB
Avena fatua         RU, DB
Azolla filiculoides       RF
Baccharis douglasii      RF
Baccharis salicifolia     RF
Bassia hyssopifolia       AM
Bidens frondosa       RF
Brassica nigra         RU
Briza minor         RU
Bromus diandrus    AM, RF, RU, DB
Bromus hordeaceus   AM, RF, RU, DB
Calandrinia ciliata
Capsella bursa-pastoris   AM, RU
Cardia draba       RF
Carex barbarae    RF
Carex densa         AM
Carex douglasii    AM, RF
Carex praegracilis       RF
Carya illinoensis      RF
Centaurea solstitialis   AM, RF, RU, DB
Cephalanthus occidentalis    RF
Cercis occidentalis     RF
Chamomilla suaveolens   RU, DB
Chenopodium album   AM, RU, DB
Chenopodium ambrosoides    RF, RU, DB
Chenopodium berlandieri  AM
Chenopodium pumilio   AM
Cirsium vulgare    AM, RF, RU, DB
Citrullus colocynthis   AM
Claytonia perfoliata     RF
Clematis ligusticifolia   RF
Conium maculata     RF
Convolvulus arvensis      RU
Conyza canadensis   AL, RF, RU
Coronopus didymus    RU
Crassula tillaea           RU
Cucurbita foetidiissima   AM
Cuscuta californica  AM
Cynodon dactylon    RF
Cyperus acuminatus   RF
Datura stramonium     RF, RU, DB
Datura wrightii    AM, RF, RU
Descurainia pinnata    RF
Dichlostemma capitatum     RF
Distichlis spicata    RF, DB
Eclipta prostrata      RF
Eleocaris montevidensis    RF
Epilobium brachycarpum    RF
Equisetum hymenale     RF
Eremocarpus setigerus      RU, DB
Eriogonum angulosum       RU
Erodium botrys      RF, RU, DB
Erodium cicutarium     RF, RU, DB
Erodium moschatum     RF, RU, DB
Eschscholzia californica       RU
Eucalyptus globulus       RU
Euthamia occidentalis   AM
Ficus carica         RU
Frankenia salina    AM
Fraxinus latifolia      RF
Galium aparine      RF
Geranium dissectum        RU
Gnaphalium lutteo-album      RU, DB
Grindelia camporum   AM
Helianthus annuus        RU, DB
Heliotropium curassavicum    AM, RU, DB
Hemizonia pungens    AM, RU, DB
Heterotheca grandiflora     RF, RU, DB
Hordeum intercedens      AM
Hordeum murinum          AM, RU, DB
Hypochaeris glabra        RU, DB
Juncus balticus        AM, RF, RU
Juncus bufonius        RU
Lactuca ludoviciana   AM, RF, RU, DB
Lactuca serriola          AM, RU
Lamium amplexicaule    RF
Lasthenia chrysantha      AM
Leersia oryzoides      RF
Lemna minor      RF
Lessingia glandulifera       RU, DB
Leymus triticoides   AM, RF
Ligusticum ovalifolium     RF
Lolium multiflorum       AM RU
Ludwigia peploides     RF
Lupinus albifrons     RF
Lupinus benthamii    RU
Lupinus bicolor        RU, DB
Maclura pomifera     RF
Malva neglecta         RF, DB
Marah fabaceous      RF
Marrubium vulgare   RF
Marselia vestita        RF
Medicago polymorpha   AM, RF
Medicago sativa        RF
Melilotus officinalis  AM,RU
Mentha spicata      RF
Mimulus cardinalis    RF
Mimulus guttatus      RF
Mimulus moschatus    RF
Morus alba          RU
Myriopyhyllum hippuriodes    RF
Nepeta cataria      RF
Nicotiana acuminata   AM, RF, RU
Nicotiana glauca      RF, RU
Nitrophila occidentalis   AM
Paspalum dilatatum     RF
Pectocarya linearis     DB
Pholistoma aurtium     RF
Phoradendron macrophyllum    RF
Phoradendron villosum     RF
Phytolacca americana        RU
Picris echioides    AM, RF, RU, DB
Plagiobothrys canescens      AM, RU, DB
Plantago lanceolata   AM
Plantago major         RU
Platanus racemosa    RF
Poa annua     AM, RU
Polygonum arenastrum    RU
Polygonum persicaria     RF
Polypogon monspeliensis    RF
Populus fremontii     RF
Psoralea spp.     RF
Quercus lobata      RF
Ranunculus californicus  AM
Raphanus sativus         RU, DB
Ribes quercetorum       RF
Rosa californica      RF
Rubus discolor        RF
Rubus ursinus          RF
Rumex crispus         AM, RU
Rumex occidentalis     RF
Sagittaria montevidensis     RF
Salix exigua      RF
Salix gooddingii      RF
Salix laevigata         RF
Salix lasiolepis      RF
Salix lucida      RF
Salsola kali      AM, RU, DB
Sambucus mexicana     RF
Scirpus acutus      RF
Secale cereale    AM
Senecio vulgaris    AM, RU
Setaria gracilis      RF, RU
Silene gallica         RF
Silybum marianum   AM, RU
Sisymbrium irio         RU
Sisymbrium officinale       RU
Solanum americanum     RF
Solidago californica     RF
Sonchus asper    AM, RU, DB
Sonchus oleraceus      RU
Sorghum halapense     RF, RU
Spergularia macrotheca     AM
Sporobolus airoides   AM
Stachys albens      RF
Stellaria media    AM, RF, RU
Taraxacum officinale   AM, RU
Thysanocarpus curvipes  AM, RF, RU
Tribulus terrestris        RU
Typha latifolia      RF
Urtica dioica         AM, RF, RU
Urtica urens      RF
Verbascum thapsus   AM, RU
Verbena bonariensis     RF
Veronica serpyllifolia   RF
Vicia sativa    AM
Vicia villosa   AM
Vitis californica    RF
Vitis vinifera         RU
Vulpia myuros       AM, RU
Xanthium spinosum   AM, RF, RU, DB
Xanthium strumarium   AM, RF, RU


Literature Cited

Bakker, Elna. 1971. An Island Called California: An Ecological Introduction to Its Natural Communities. University of Califonia Press.

Farquhar, Francis. 1965. History of the Sierra Nevada. University of California Press.

Frenkel, Robert E.. 1970. Ruderal Vegetation Along some California Roadsides. University of California Press, Berkeley.

Gist, Brooks D. 1976. Empire out of the Tules: A True Story of the San Joaquin Valley in California. Self Published. Tulare, CA.

Griffin, James . 1977. Oak Woodland. In Michael Barbour and Jack Major (Eds.) Terrestrial Vegetation of Califonia. California Native Plant Society Press.

Hamilton, Jason. 1997. Changing perceptions of pre-european grasslands in California. Madrono 44(4):311-333.

Heady, Harold F. 1977. Valley Grassland. In Michael barbour and Jack Major (Eds) Terrestrial Vegetation of Califonia. California native Plant Society Press.

Hickman, James C. 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. J.C. Hickman (Ed.). University of California Press.

MacGruder, Genevieve Krata. 1950, The Upper San Joaquin Valley 1771-1780. Kern County Historical Society.

Mayfield, Thomas Jefferson. 1993. Indian Summer: Traditional Life Among the Choinumne Indians of California's San Joaquin Valley. Heyday Books and California Historical Society.

For a sortable MS Excel worksheet of the Plants of the Kaweah Oaks Preserve click here

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